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The International Journal of Prosthodontics
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Int J Prosthodont 33 (2020), No. 2     9. Mar. 2020
Int J Prosthodont 33 (2020), No. 2  (09.03.2020)

Page 202-211, doi:10.11607/ijp.6531, PubMed:32069345


Undetected Excess Cement at Marginal Areas of Zirconia Crown Copings: In Vitro Analysis of Two Luting Agents and Their Influence on Retention
Augusti, Davide / Augusti, Gabriele / Re, Dino
Purpose: To evaluate the amount of residual cement (ECL) around the margins of zirconia crown copings after careful luting and cleaning procedures and to investigate these factors in relation to two tested luting materials.
Materials and Methods: An experimental model of a maxillary arch was selected for this in vitro study. The maxillary first molar was prepared to receive an all-ceramic, single, full-crown restoration with a finish line located 1 mm below the artificial gingiva. After scanning of the prepared tooth, 20 paired zirconia coping–abutment assemblies were CAD/CAM fabricated. A slot in the model allowed for insertion and removal of the assemblies for each new test. Specimens were divided into two groups according to the cementation procedure: half (n = 10) were luted using a resin-modified glass-ionomer (RMGI) (Ketac-Cem Plus) (GI group), and the other half with a dual-curing self-adhesive resin agent (RelyX Unicem 2) (UN group). The substructures were loaded with cement, and a customized preseating device was adopted for preliminary reduction of excess. The zirconia copings were finally seated on their respective abutments located on the simulation model. A blinded investigator attempted to remove all excess cement with clinically available instruments. The amount of excess cement left in situ after cleaning procedures was weighed in grams. Dislodging forces of luted coping-abutment assemblies were obtained by using pull-off tests in a universal testing machine (crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute) after 24 hours of water storage. Means and standard deviations were calculated for ECL and for retention force values, and Mann-Whitney and ANOVA tests were carried out to detect significant differences (α = .05) among groups.
Results: Cement remnants were found in all specimens despite the cleaning procedures, with a typical distribution in interproximal areas. Mean ECL values for the GI and UN groups were 0.0079 ± 0.0060 and 0.0107 ± 0.0081, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between tested cements (P = .3284). Removal stress values (MPa) were significantly higher (P = .0313) for the UN group (12.4 ± 6.5) than for the GI group (6.57 ± 4.69).
Conclusion: Similar amounts of undetected cement remnants were discovered around the esthetic margins of zirconia crown copings regardless of cement type. The luting procedure using the self-adhesive resin cement provided significantly higher early retention values than the RMGI material.